Author Archives: Chemyo

Understanding Research Chemical Testing: What Is HPLC?

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PLC stands for High Performance Liquid Chromatography, and is a technique used to separate different constituents of a compound using high pressure to push solvents through the column. It is the most widely used technique to identify, quantify and separate components of a mixture. HPLC is widely used for the analysis of constituents of a pharmaceutical actives, drug products, pesticides, and countless other substances.

In UPLC, or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, column particle size of less than 2um can be used. This allows for better separation than the typical particle size of 5um that are used in HPLC. It also allows for a very fast analysis. Though, UPLC is a trademark technology it is used as a general term for this technique. Whereas the pump pressure in HPLC is 40MPa, in UPLC, this pressure can go up to 100MPa, which is what makes this technique so very exciting and efficient.

Characterization of Semi- and nonvolatile Materials by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Impact Analytical offers HPLC testing services to separate, characterize, identify, and quantitate semi- and nonvolatile materials in various sample matrices. Our state-of-the-art HPLC capabilities allow for detection of trace level analyses. Suited with both Waters and Agilent HPLC and UPLC systems, Impact Analytical is equipped with the following detectors: UV, Charged Aerosol (CAD), Photo Diode Array (PDA), Mass Spectrometer (MS) and Refractive Index (RI). Our equipment is qualified for testing under cGMP or GLP (FDA, EPA) guidelines, if needed. A summary of services that offered utilizing HPLC is included below:

  • Actives Quantitation
  • Additive Analysis
  • Extractables and Leachables
  • Assay and Impurity Analysis
  • Identification including Contaminant Analysis and quantitation
  • Method Development, Transfer, and Validation

Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Impact Analytical offers Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) testing services which is the newest technology in liquid chromatography. UPLC involves the liquid chromatography at high pressures, providing chromatography that outperforms traditional HPLC in peak resolution. In addition, UPLC delivers separations in 3 to 10 minutes, as compared to 15 to 20 minute separations in traditional HPLC. Below, an overlay of chromatograms illustrates the characterization of a standard of polymer additives by UPLC and traditional HPLC.

Traditional HPLC Chromatogram

UPLC Chromatogram

These improvements are accomplished through re-engineered columns that utilize sub-2-µm particles which can handle increased pressures from innovative LC pumps and injectors. Impact Analytical has added a Waters Acquity UPLC to our stable of capabilities, and is leading the migration from HPLC to UPLC. Contact us to discuss how UPLC can simultaneously improve the quality and speed of your separation. We currently offer analysis utilizing UPLC for the following needs:

  • Polymer additives analysis/quantitation
  • API quantitation
  • Method development/validation
  • HPLC – to – UPLC method transfer
  • Surfactant analysis
  • Impurities characterization

Guest Post: Why Ostarine Is The World’s Favourite SARM

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Note: This is guest post, the views expressed in this article are not those of Chemyo LLC or its employees.

Ostarine is a product used to boost muscle growth and prevent muscle wasting, which is a result you would normally expect from steroids. However, Ostarine differs from traditional anabolic steroids in the way it affects your body. Most notably, with Ostarine you can avoid some of the most common unwanted side effects of steroids. Here, we will get into detail about what to expect from using Ostarine.

Table Of Contents

Chapter 1. What is Ostarine?

Chapter 2. How does Ostarine work?

Section 1. Building muscle

Section 2. Burning fat

Chapter 3. Side effects

Chapter 4. How to use Ostarine

Chapter 5. Where to buy Ostarine

Chapter 6. Final verdict

Chapter 1: What is Ostarine?

Ostarine, also known as MK-2866, is what we call a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, or SARM. That means that this product directly affects anabolic activity without overloading the body with excessive hormones (1). Just like steroids, Ostarine targets androgen receptors, but unlike them, it does not convert into estrogen. Thanks to that, with Ostarine it is possible to avoid numerous side effects linked to steroid use.

Chapter 2: How does Ostarine work?

This type of SARM was designed to help patients combat the effects of muscle and bone wasting diseases. Since it does not affect muscle tissue other than skeletal muscle, it has proven to be a valuable treatment option for patients.

Section 1 –  Building Muscle

However, Ostarine does not simply prevent loss of muscle tissue. It can also help users gain lean muscle mass. You can benefit from Ostarine whether you are trying to increase mass or reduce the amount of body fat. What makes it especially useful is the fact that weight gains from Ostarine are cleaner than those from steroids.

What that means in effect is that you won’t experience the same overall weight gain as with steroids, but the weight you do gain will be lean muscle (2). Steroids are notorious for causing water retention, which can be just as frustrating as gaining fat. An even greater problem steroids users may suffer from is gynaecomastia – the storage of fat in the lower part of the chest.

Ostarine can help you avoid these side effects. It can also be used to help muscle recovery after a workout. Besides that, the results you gain that way will be easier to maintain, which is an often overlooked aspect of bodybuilding.

Research Chemical Spotlight: LGD-4033

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LGD-4033 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). LGD-4033 binds to the androgen receptor of muscle and bone selectively, exhibiting similar effects as testosterone, with only partial agonist activity on the prostate. It was developed as a way to treat diseases or conditions associated with muscle and bone deterioration. The advantage a SARM like LGD has over testosterone is the difference in activity it has on the body outside of muscle and bone.

LGD-4033as a significant effect on building lean muscle mass, strengthening bone and muscle, and it even has potential to help with healing. This is the most anabolic of SARMS, but, just like its cousins andarine and mk-2866, it binds very strongly to the androgen receptor. However, it favors the receptors in your muscle and bone, causing anabolic and anti-catabolic effects. In addition, it has a significant effect in preventing bone degeneration, and it has even proven to strengthen bones with minimized risk of typical androgenic problems like prostate enlargement, hair loss, etc.

In one study, male rats were castrated and left untreated for 14 days to allow for muscle and prostate to atrophy. These rats were then treated with LGD-4033 after 14 days and showed potent activity in the skeletal muscle, but very weak activity in the prostate despite higher concentrations being found there. Another study, conducted by Ligand over a 28 day period, showed that increased muscle mass in female rats was related to an increase in the muscle fibre cross sectional diameter due to LGD-4033 use.